Table of (Macro-) Altaic phonology

Basic sound correspondences between Proto-Altaic and the macro-Altaic languages.

Source: Bomhard, Allan R., A Brief History of the Reconstruction Of the Proto-Altaic Phonological System, 2016 Florence US
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Proto-Altaic Turkic Mongolian Tungus Korean Japanese
Micro-Altaic Macro-Altaic
*ph- *Ø-/*y- *h-/*y- *p- *p- *p-
*-ph- *-p- *-h-/*-b-, *-b *-p- *-p- *-p-
*p- *b- *b-/*h- *p- *p- *p-
*-p- *-b- *-b- *-b- *p- *p-
*b- *b- *b- *b- *b- *p-/*b[a, ə, Vy]
*-b- *-b- *-h-/*-[R]b-/*b[Vg], *-b *-b- *-b-, *-p *-p-/*[iV, y]w
*m *b-, *-m- *m *m *m *m
*th- *t- *[dV+ly ry r] *t-/*č(i)- *t- *t- *t-
*-th- *-t- *-t-/*-č(i)-, -d *-t- *-t- *-t-
*t- *d- *d-/*č(i)- *d-/*ǯ(i̯)- *t- *t-/*d[i ə]
*-t- *-t- *-d-/*-č(i)- *-t- *-t-/*-r- *-t-
*d- *y- *d-/*ǯ(i)- *d- *t- *d-/*t[V + Ch]
*-d- *-d- *-d-/*-ǯ(i)- *-d- *-t-/*-r- *-t-/*[iV y]y
*n *y-, *n *n *n *n *n
*kh- *k- *k- *x- *k- *k-
*-kh- *-k- *-k-/*-g[Vh]-, *-g *-k-/*-x- *-k-/*-x- *-k-
*k- *g- *k- *k- *k- *k-
*-k- *-k-/*-g[Vr]- *-g-, *-g *-k- *-Ø-/*-h-, *-k *-k-
*g- *g- *g- *g- *k- *k-
*-g- *-g- *-h-/*-g[Vh]-, *-g *-g- *-Ø-/*-h-, *-k *-k-/*[iV]Ø
*ŋ- *Ø-/*y- *Ø-/*y-/*g[u]-/*n[a o e] *ŋ- *n- *Ø-/*n-(/*m[i̯]-)
*-ŋ- *-ŋ- *-ŋ-/*-n-/*-m-/*-h- *-ŋ- *-ŋ-/*-Ø- *-n-/*-m-
h- *č- *č- *č- *č- *t-
*-čh- *-č- *-č- *-č- *-č- *-t
*č- *d- *d-/*č(i)- *ǯ- *č- *t-
*-č- *-č- *-č- *-s- *-č- *-s-
*ǯ- *y- *ǯ- *ǯ- *č- *d-
*-ǯ- *-y- *-ǯ- *-ǯ- *-č- *-y-
*ny *y-, *-ny- *ǯ-, *-y-/*-n- *ny *n-, *-ny- *m-, *-n-/*-m-
*-y- *-y- *-y-/*-h- *-y- *-y-/*-Ø- *-y-/*-Ø-
*-r- *-r- *-r- *-r- *-r- *-r-/*-t-
*-ry- *-ry- *-r- *-r- *-r- *-r-/*-t[i u]-
*l *y-, *-l- *l-/*n-, *-l- *l *n-, *-r- *n-, *-r-
*ly *y-, *-ly- *d-/*ǯ(i)-, *-l- *l *n-, *-r- *n-, *-s-
*s *s *s *s *s-/*h-, *-s- *s
*z- *y- *s- *s- *s- *s-
*s-/*č[A]-, *-s- *s-/*č[A]-, *-s- *s *s *s